By Susan Spann
Last month, my #PubLaw guest post took a look at important legal issues authors face when writing for anthologies. Today, and in the months to come, I'll be taking a closer look at anthology contracts, and at the special issues unique to anthology writing.
Today, we start with a look at the grant of rights in anthology contracts, which differs significantly from the grant of rights in a standard book-length publishing deal.
The following are all normal or standard grants of rights which authors can expect to see in anthology contracts:
1. Grant of "first" print rights (or, sometimes, "non-exclusive print rights") -- and limits those rights to use in the specified anthology only. Many anthologies want "first print rights" to the stories they contain, which means those stories cannot appear elsewhere, in print or electronic formats, before they are published in the anthology. (Most of the time, publishers of book-length works want first print rights as well.) For this reason, the grant of rights in anthology contracts typically reads: "Author hereby grants first English-language publication rights" or "Author grants first English-language anthology publication rights."
When the work has appeared somewhere else before, the anthology contract may modify this language by removing "first" and inserting "non-exclusive," or "second" or some other appropriate identifying word.
Note: if the work in question has appeared in print or electronic form somewhere else (including publication on a blog) in whole or in significant part, you must let the publisher know before you sign the anthology contract, to be sure the grant of rights is properly phrased (and that the publisher is willing to take previously published work).
Be careful to ensure that the grant of rights enables the publisher to publish the work as part of a specified anthology only. The grant of rights is for anthology publication, not for standalone or other unspecified purposes.
2. Grant of continuing, non-exclusive print or publication rights (as part of the specified anthology only). Authors writing for anthologies should always be careful to ensure that the contract's grant of rights contains the word "non-exclusive" and clearly states that the anthology's publisher has the continuing, non-exclusive right to reproduce the author's work as part of the specified anthology only.
Publishers need "continuing" non-exclusive rights so the work can be included in future editions or subsequent printings of the anthology.
Never surrender your rights to publish the work in other formats, other anthologies, or in other collections. Some anthologies may require the author to wait for a stated period of time before publishing the work elsewhere (6-12 months is reasonable--go longer only if you decide you want to agree to a longer term). That's okay, and reasonable if the time requested isn't too long. However, beware anthologies that bar you from ever publishing or using your work again in other places. That's not reasonable, and not something authors should grant.
Note: NEVER grant or transfer your copyright in your work to an anthology publisher. We'll deal with "anthology copyrights" in next month's post, but for now, remember: an anthology publisher DOES NOT NEED to own the copyright in your story. The author should always retain copyright ownership in his or her work.
3. Grant of English language rights only (no translation rights). Unless the anthology's publisher regularly translates anthologies into foreign languages (and this is rare), the publisher needs only English language rights to the author's work. Retaining foreign language (and translation) rights enables the author to sell those rights elsewhere, or arrange for foreign-language publication in foreign anthologies, without limitations.
4. No grants of subsidiary rights. Film, TV, apps and gaming, merchandising, and other subsidiary rights don't generally belong in anthology contracts, except to the extent the contract specifies that they belong to the author alone.
5. A statement that the author retains all rights not expressly granted to the publisher in the contract. This is standard language, but should appear in all contracts an author signs, just to ensure all parties are clear that the only rights being granted are those the author states, clearly, that (s)he is licensing to the publisher.
Some of these terms resemble the ones in a book-length publishing contract, but authors need to ensure that anthology contracts contain only the limited grants of rights the publisher needs to publish, print (and reprint) the work as part of the anthology in question. Anything beyond that should remain with the author alone.
Susan Spann is a California transactional attorney whose practice focuses on publishing law and business. She also writes the Shinobi Mysteries, featuring ninja detective Hiro Hattori and his Portuguese Jesuit sidekick, Father Mateo. Her debut novel, CLAWS OF THE CAT (Minotaur Books, 2013), was named a Library Journal Mystery Debut of the Month. The second Shinobi Mystery, BLADE OF THE SAMURAI, released on July 15, 2014. When not writing or practicing law, Susan raises seahorses and rare corals in her marine aquarium.You can find her online at her website (http://www.SusanSpann.com), on Facebook and on Twitter (@SusanSpann), where she founded and curates the #PubLaw hashtag.